Leaching Experiment

REPORT ON LEACHING EXPERIMENT OF PLASTIC MATERIALS PREPARED BY:

EMANUEL HOROWITZ, Ph.D

14100 NORTH GATE DRIVE

SILVER SPRING, MD 20906

FEBRUARY 21, 1997

PURPOSE:

The objective of the leaching experiment was to determine if heavy metals; Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg) and Barium (Ba), were extracted from the plastic materials listed in Table 1 after being separately immersed in distilled water and 50%v (by volume) ethyl alcohol for six months at room temperature.

PROCEDURE:

Samples of plastics were conditioned to constant weight at room temperature, placed in individual labeled glass jars containing 250 milliliters of solvent (distilled water or 50%v ethyl alcohol), sealed and were allowed to remain undisturbed for six months. There were sixteen jars in this experiment, eight contained distilled water (“A” samples) and eight contained 50%v ethyl alcohol (“B” samples).

After six months the plastic samples were individually removed from the jars. The jars were again sealed and submitted to the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Artech Testing, L.L.C., 14554 Lee Road, Chantilly, VA 20151-1639 (Tel .703-378-7263). The liquid in each jar was analyzed for Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg) and Barium (Ba). In addition, samples taken from the original solvents used in this experiment, distilled water and ethyl alcohol (100% or 200 proof) were analyzed for Cadmium, Lead, Mercury and Barium.

All liquid samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using a Buck Model 200A instrument. A single injection into a cold vapor accessory was used for the Mercury determination. Mercury was measured in accordance with the EPA Method 7470A which has a detection limit of 0.2 micrograms per liter (ppb). The EPA Method 7130, with a detection limit of 5 micrograms per liter (ppb) was used in the analysis for Cadmium. The analysis for Lead was conducted in accordance with the EPA Method 7420 which has a detection limit of 100 1 micrograms per liter (ppb). Barium was analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 7080A which has a detection limit of 100 micrograms per liter (ppb).

RESULTS

None of the metals were present in any of the submitted liquid samples or in the original solvents at or above the detection limit.

DISCUSSION

The EPA maximum allowable concentrations for drinking water for the metals, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury and Barium, are listed below:

REGULATORY LEVEL*

MILLIGRAMS PER LITER mg/L (ppm)

Cadmium 1.0

Lead 5.0

Mercury 0.2

Barium 100.0

None of these metals was found to be present at the parts per million (ppm) level in the samples analyzed. This is the regulatory level specified by EPA. In fact, none of these metals were found to be present at the limits of detection of the EPA Methods which were at the parts per billion (ppb) level. These limits, for each of the metals discussed, are listed below:

EPA METHOD DETECTION LIMIT

MICROGRAMS PER LITER, mc/L (ppb)

Cadmium 5

Lead 100

Mercury 0.2

Barium 100

· Table 7-1: Maxirnum Concentration of Contaminants for Toxicity Characteristic. Revision 2, September 1994, pp. 17-18.

Conclusion

After soaking at room temperature, in distilled water or 50%v ethyl alcohol for six months in a sealed glass jar, no Cadmium, Lead, Mercury or Barium was extracted from the plastic samples listed in Table 1 as determined by the prescribed EPA analytical methodology, down to the detection limits at the parts per billion (ppb) level.

The report from the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, including the analytical results for each of the liquid samples analyzed as well as the two original solvents used in the experiment, is attached.

Prepared By:

Emanuel Horowitz, Ph.D.

TABLE 1.

SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION

SAMPLE LEACHING SOLVENT

1A: Flexite Supreme Distilled Water

2A: Flexite Supreme Distilled Water

3B: Flexite Supreme 50%v Ethyl Alcohol

4B: Flexite Supreme 50%v Ethyl Alcohol

5A: Flexite + Distilled Water

6A: Flexite + Distilled Water

7B: Flexite + 50%v Ethyl Alcohol

8B: Flexite + 50%v Ethyl Alcohol

9A: Flexite MP Distilled Water

10A: Flexite MP Distilled Water

11B: Flexite MP 50%v Ethyl Alcohol

12B: Flexite MP 50%v Ethyl Alcohol

13A: North Therm Distilled Water

14B: North Therm Distilled Water

15B: North Therm 50%v Ethyl Alcohol

16B: North Therm 50%v Ethyl Alcohol

TABLE 7-1.

MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION OF CONTAMINANTS FOR TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC

___________________________________________________________________

Contaminant Regulatory Level (mg/L)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Arsenic 5.0

Barium 100.0

Benzene 0.5

Cadmium 1.0

Carbon tetrachloride 0.5

Chlordane 0.03

Chlorobenzene 100.0

Chloroform 6.0

Chromium 5.0

o-Cresol 200.01

m-Cresol 200.01

p-Cresol 200.01

Cresol 200.01

2,4-D 10.0

1,4-Dichlorobenzene 7.5

1,2-Dichloroethane 0.5

1,1-Dichloroethylene 0.7

2,4-Dinitrotoluene 0.l32

Endrin 0.02

Heptachlor (and its hydroxide) 0.008

Hexachlorobenzene 0.l32

Hexachloro-1,3-butadiene 0.5

Hexachloroethane 3.0

Lead 5.0

Lindane 0.4

Mercury 0.2

Methoxychlor 10.0

Methyl ethyl ketone 200.0

Nitrobenzene 2.0

Pentachlorophenol 100.0

Pyridine 5.02

Selenium 1.0

Silver 5.0

Tetrachloroethylene 0.7

Toxaphene 0.5

Trichloroethylene 0.5

2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 400.00

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 2.0

2,4,5-TP (Silvex) 1.0

Vinyl chloride 0.2

1If o-, m-, and p-cresol concentrations cannot be differentiated, the total cresol (D026) concentration is used. The regulatory level of total cresol is 200 mg/L. 2Quantitation limit is greater than the calculated regulatory level. The quantitation limit therefore becomes the regulatory level.

SEVEN – 18

Revision 2

September 1994

ARTECH TESTING,L.L.C.

14554 LEE ROAD · CHANTILLY, VA 20151-1632

703 378-7263 · 800 283-7848 · FAX 703 378-7274

February 7, 1997

Dr. Manny Horowitz

14100 North Gate Drive

Silver Spring, Maryland 20906

Subject: Analysis of Liquids for Heavy Metals

Reference: ARTECH C70023

Dear Dr. Horowitz:

Eighteen samples of liquid were submitted to ARTECH for determination of the levels of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg) and Barium (Ba) present. The samples were analyzed using a Buck Model 200A Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The Mercury determination required the used of a Cold Vapor accessory with the AAS. Barium was analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 7080A which has a detection limit of 100 micrograms per liter (ppb).

Cadmium was analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 7130 which has a detection limit of five micrograms per liter (ppb). Lead was analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 7420 which has a detection limit of 100 micrograms per liter (ppb). Mercury was analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 7470A which has a detection limit of 0.2 micrograms per liter (ppb). The results for Cd, Pb and Ba were measured from an average of six readings. Hg was measured using a single injection into the Cold Vapor accessory.

None of the analyses were present in any of the samples at or above the detection limit. If ARTECH can be of any further assistance, on this or other matters, please contact us at any time.

Sincerely,

ARTECH Testing, LLC

Karl Schweier

Chemist

ARTECH TESTING,L.L.C.

14554 LEE ROAD · CHANTILLY, VA 20151-1632

703 378-7263 · 800 283-7848 · FAX 703 378-7274

February 12, 1997

Dr. Manny Horowitz

14100 North Gate Drive

Silver Spring, Maryland 20906

Subject: Analysis of Liquids for Heavy Metals (Amended Report)

Reference: ARTECH C70023

Dear Dr. Horowitz:

Eighteen samples of liquid were submitted to ARTECH for determination of the levels of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg) and Barium (Ba) present. The samples were analyzed using a Buck Model 200A Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The Mercury determination required the used of a Cold Vapor accessory with the AAS.

Barium was analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 7080A which has a detection limit of 100 micrograms per liter (ppb). Cadmium was analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 7130 which has a detection limit of five micrograms per liter (ppb). Lead was analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 7420 which has a detection limit of 100 micrograms per liter (ppb). Mercury was analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 7470A which has detection limit of 0.2 micrograms per liter (ppb). The results for Cd, Pb and Ba were measured from an average of six readings. Hg was measured using a single injection into the Cold Vapor accessory.

None of the analyses were present in any of the samples at or above the detection limit. The Maximum Concentration of Contaminants for Toxicity Characteristics from EPA SW-846 allowed for the elements analyzed is 100.0 milligrams per liter (ppm) for Barium, 1.0 milligrams per liter (ppm) for Cadmium, 5.0 milligrams per liter (ppm) for Lead and 0.2 milligrams per liter (ppm) for Mercury. A copy of Table 7-1 (Maximum Concentration of Contaminants for Toxicity Characteristic)is enclosed. A table of the individual results is also attached.

If ARTECH can be of any further assistance, on this or other matters,

please contact us at any time.

Sincerely,

ARTECH Testing, LLC

Karl Schweier

Chemist

Barium Sample ID Direct Read (ppb) Average

Distilled H20 < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 200 Proof Ethyl Alcohol < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 1A Flexite Supreme < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 2A Flexite Supreme < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 3B Flexite Supreme < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 4B Flexite Supreme < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 5A Flexite + < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 6A Flexite + < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 7B Flexite + < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 8B Flexite + < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 9A Flexite MP < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 10A Flexite MP < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 11B Flexite MP < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 12B Flexite MP < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 13A Norththerm < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 14A Norththerm < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 15B Norththerm < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 16B Norththerm < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 < 100 Cadmium Sample ID Direct Read (ppb) Average Distilled H20 < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 200 Proof < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 Ethyl Alcohol < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 1A Flexite Supreme < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 2A Flexite Supreme < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 3B Flexite Supreme < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 4B Flexite Supreme < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 5A Flexite + < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 6A Flexite + < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 7B Flexite + < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 8B Flexite + < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 9A Flexite MP < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 10A Flexite MP < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 11B Flexite MP < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 12B Flexite MP < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 13A Norththerm < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 14A Norththerm < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 15B Norththerm < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 16B Norththerm < 5, < 5, <5, < 5, < 5, < 5 Lead Sample ID Direct Read (ppb) Average Distilled H20 < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 200 Proof < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 Ethyl Alcohol < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 1A Flexite Supreme < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 2A Flexite Supreme < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 3B Flexite Supreme < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 4B Flexite Supreme < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 5A Flexite + < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 6A Flexite + < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 7B Flexite + < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 8B Flexite + < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 9A Flexite MP < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 10A Flexite MP < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 11B Flexite MP < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 12B Flexite MP < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 13A Norththerm < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 14A Norththerm < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 15B Norththerm < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 16B Norththerm < 100, < 100, <100, < 100, < 100, <100 <100 Mercury Sample ID Direct Read (ppb) Distilled H20 < 0.2 200 Proof < 0.2 Ethyl Alcohol < 0.2 1A Flexite Supreme < 0.2 2A Flexite Supreme < 0.2 3B Flexite Supreme < 0.2 4B Flexite Supreme < 0.2 5A Flexite + < 0.2 6A Flexite + < 0.2 7B Flexite + < 0.2 8B Flexite + < 0.2 9A Flexite MP < 0.2 10A Flexite MP < 0.2 11B Flexite MP < 0.2 12B Flexite MP < 0.2 13A Norththerm < 0.2 14A Norththerm < 0.2 15B Norththerm < 0.2 16B Norththerm < 0.2